One of the basic problems that scientists face today is that there are a number of diseases for which no vaccine can be made. There’s the example of diseases caused by hypervariable viruses. The best way to simplify this concept would be to consider Hepatitis C Virus.
Hepatitis C virus has the tendency to mutate, and due to that, there’s hasn’t been any worthwhile vaccine developed for it. The same case applies for AIDS and Influenza virus. While conventional vaccine development is on its due course, the concept of computer generated vaccines is also gaining popularity.
When it comes to the concept of disease epidemiology, there are a number of aspects related to it. Common phenomenons like asthma attacks, allergies and other similar conditions can be treated if you buy Singulair or another similar solution. The meaning implied here is that for drugs of this nature, there isn’t any problem of drug resistance or intolerance. However, when focusing on virology based study, resistance and mutations are a common occurrence.
The preamble of reverse vaccinology comes in here. As far as basic immunology is concerned, the action of a vaccine is dependent upon placing an antigen in your body which the immune system can recognize and make an antibody against.
Since the virus keeps on mutating, it becomes difficult for the immune system to attack it. The different proteins that the virus produces can be matched with antigen-epitope interaction. The epitope is the region which dictates which antigen binds to which antibody.
In reverse vaccinology, instead of injected dead or weakened pathogen into your body, its protein in silico (in computer) is checked first. The field of bioinformatics has helped develop the basic ground of reverse vaccinology to a great extent. The sequence of the virus is considered as a subject and later different variations are looked upon.
Another important thing to note is that the variation not only occurs within the virus, but also within the immune system. The immune system recognition ability of two persons for the same virus can be different so in one person the vaccine works, while in the other it doesn’t.
Therefore, using the power of computer based algorithms, the variation in virus with the variation in the immune system are matched. At the end, the results reveal some constant area which represents a protein that can be used as a vaccine. This workflow is known as epitope prediction and has been successfully applied to create vaccine against disease caused by a Meningococcus bacterium.
Reverse vaccinology is a comparatively new term and has the benefit of being more accurate than conventional vaccine development methods. There is a database available on the internet known as the vaccine investigation and online information network (VIOLIN) which lists then proteins available for being tested as vaccines.
Another advantage of reverse vaccinology is the notion of safety during testing. Since all of the work is being done in silico, the dangers that are generally associated with vaccine testing are being eliminated.
Only after the data set shows sign that the protein would not be harmful to the body, the trial moves forward. It is also an efficient method of making vaccines, and may take centerfold during the next few years.